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South African
Wine Lab Association:

An Integrated Strategy for the Proactive Management of Grapevine Trunk Disease Pathogen Infections in Grapevine Nurseries

F. Halleen1,2*, P.H. Fourie2,3

The aim of this study was to compare 11 treatment regimes (TR) in grapevine nurseries in order to eradicate
trunk pathogens. Grapevine propagation material was subjected to treatments before cold storage, before
and after grafting, before planting and after uprooting. Isolations were made from roots, rootstocks and
graft unions of uprooted vines. None of the treatments consistently affected the number of certifiable vines
produced. TR 1 (benomyl), TR 3 (Sporekill) and TR 4 (Trichoflow) increased root mass. Phaeomoniella
chlamydospora was the most frequently isolated pathogen from all plant parts. In general, TR 2, 7, 9
and 11 caused the lowest occurrence of Phaeomoniella. TR 9 consistently reduced the incidence of
Phaeoacremonium. Pleurostomophora richardsiae occurred most frequently in graft unions, but treatments
were too inconsistent to draw meaningful conclusions. TR 7 (hot water treatment (HWT) of uprooted
grapevines) consistently reduced incidences of black foot disease (BFD) pathogens. The highest incidence
of Botryosphaeriaceae occurred in graft unions, but all treatments significantly reduced infections. The
colonisation of rootstocks and graft unions by Trichoderma was significantly better with TR 4 (Trichoflow).
The other Trichoderma treatments (TR 9, 10 and 11) differed from the control treatment only in the graft
unions. This is a first report of an integrated strategy covering all the phases of the propagation process,
from the moment the nursery receives the propagation material until the dormant vines are removed. TR
9 is recommended for use in nurseries, although HWT of dormant vines is recommended to eradicate BFD
pathogens. Benomyl can be replaced by carbendazim when benomyl is no longer available.

Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, Phaeoacremonium, Dactylonectria, Ilyonectria, Campylocarpon, Botryosphaeriaceae,
Pleurostomophora richardsiae, Trichoderma

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